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 what's Translation?

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Pak Fay

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PostSubject: what's Translation?   Sun Sep 14, 2008 7:30 am

Translation is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language; the final product is sometimes called the "target text."

Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconception is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, and that translation is a straightforward mechanical process. A word-for-word translation does not take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms.

Translation is fraught with the potential for "spilling over" of idioms and usages from one language into the other, since both languages repose within the single brain of the translator. Such spilling-over easily produces linguistic hybrids such as "Franglais" (French-English), "Spanglish" (Spanish-English), "Poglish" (Polish-English) and "Portuñol" (Portuguese-Spanish).

The art of translation is as old as written literature. Parts of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, among the oldest known literary works, have been found in translations into several Asiatic languages of the second millennium BCE. The Epic of Gilgamesh may have been read, in their own languages, by early authors of the Bible and of the Iliad.[1]

With the advent of computers, attempts have been made to computerize or otherwise automate the translation of natural-language texts (machine translation) or to use computers as an aid to translation (computer-assisted translation).

[edit] The term
Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone

Etymologically, "translation" is a "carrying across" or "bringing across." The Latin "translatio" derives from the perfect passive participle, "translatum," of "transferre" ("to transfer" — from "trans," "across" + "ferre," "to carry" or "to bring"). The modern Romance, Germanic and Slavic European languages have generally formed their own equivalent terms for this concept after the Latin model — after "transferre" or after the kindred "traducere" ("to bring across" or "to lead across").[2]

Additionally, the Greek term for "translation," "metaphrasis" ("a speaking across"), has supplied English with "metaphrase" (a "literal translation," or "word-for-word" translation)—as contrasted with "paraphrase" ("a saying in other words," from the Greek "paraphrasis").[3] "Metaphrase" equates, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence," and "paraphrase"—to "dynamic equivalence."

[edit] Misconceptions

Newcomers to translation sometimes proceed as if translation were an exact science — as if consistent, one-to-one correlations existed between the words and phrases of different languages, rendering translations fixed and identically reproducible, much as in cryptography. Such novices may assume that all that is needed to translate a text is to "encode" and "decode" equivalents between the two languages, using a translation dictionary as the "codebook."[4]

On the contrary, such a fixed relationship would only exist were a new language synthesized and simultaneously matched to a pre-existing language's scopes of meaning, etymologies, and lexical ecological niches. [5] If the new language were subsequently to take on a life apart from such cryptographic use, each word would spontaneously begin to assume new shades of meaning and cast off previous associations, thereby vitiating any such artificial synchronization. Henceforth translation would require the disciplines described in this article.

Another common misconception is that anyone who can speak a second language will make a good translator. In the translation community, it is generally accepted that the best translations are produced by persons who are translating into their own native languages,[6] as it is rare for someone who has learned a second language to have total fluency in that language. A good translator understands the source language well, has specific experience in the subject matter of the text, and is a good writer in the target language. Moreover, he is not only bilingual but bicultural.

It has been debated whether translation is art or craft. Literary translators, such as Gregory Rabassa in If This Be Treason, argue that translation is an art — a teachable one. Other translators, mostly technical, commercial, and legal, regard their métier as a craft — again, a teachable one, subject to linguistic analysis, that benefits from academic study.

As with other human activities, the distinction between art and craft may be largely a matter of degree.[7] Even a document which appears simple, e.g. a product brochure, requires a certain level of linguistic skill that goes beyond mere technical terminology. Any material used for marketing purposes reflects on the company that produces the product and the brochure. The best translations are obtained through the combined application of good technical-terminology skills and good writing skills.

Translation has served as a writing school for many recognized writers. Translators, including the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge and ideas between cultures and civilizations. Along with ideas, they have imported into their own languages, calques of grammatical structures and of vocabulary from the source languages.

[edit] Interpreting

Main article: Interpreting

Interpreting, or "interpretation," is the intellectual activity that consists of facilitating oral or sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between two or among three or more speakers who are not speaking, or signing, the same language.

The words "interpreting" and "interpretation" both can be used to refer to this activity; the word "interpreting" is commonly used in the profession and in the translation-studies field to avoid confusion with other meanings of the word "interpretation."

Not all languages employ, as English does, two separate words to denote the activities of written and live-communication (oral or sign-language) translators.[8] Even English does not always make the distinction, frequently using "translation" as a synonym of "interpretation", especially in nontechnical usage.[9]
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Pak Fay

Jumlah posting : 204
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PostSubject: Re: what's Translation?   Sun Sep 14, 2008 7:31 am

Penjelasan dari translation di Web dalam bahasa Inggris:

* a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language
* a uniform movement without rotation
* transformation: the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; "a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface"
* (mathematics) a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same
* (genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
* rewording something in less technical terminology

* Translation is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicates the same message in another language. ...

* In Christianity, the translation of relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality (such as a tomb) to another (usually a reliquary in a church or cathedral). ... (relics)

* In physics, translation is movement that changes the position of an object, as opposed to rotation. (physics)

* Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). Translation occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located. Ribosomes are made of a small and large subunit which surrounds the mRNA. ... (biology)

* In Euclidean geometry, a translation is moving every point a constant distance in a specified direction. It is one of the rigid motions (other rigid motions include rotation and reflection). ... (geometry)

* In the theology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, translation refers to being physically changed by God from a mortal human being to an immortal human being. A person that has been translated is referred to as a translated being. ... (LDS Church)

* Translation is the technical term when a Bishop is transferred from one diocese to another. (ecclesiastical)

* Translation as a rhetorical device is a form of parody, where a sarcastic paraphrase of a source quotation is given to mock its author; to enhance the irony, it is furthermore stated that the version being given is merely a translation into the speaker's language, implying that the original ... (rhetoric device)

* The act of converting or translating (text from one language to another); The end result of translating text; Translation of forces in a gearbox; (mathematics, physics) Motion of a body on a linear path, without deformation or rotation, i.e. such that every part of the body moves at the same ...

* the process whereby protein synthesis occurs on the ribosomes from an mRNA template.

* A rigid motion of the plane or space of the form X goes to X + V for a fixed vector V.

* A movement of a figure to a new position without turning or flipping it.

* Uniform translation of points to a new location without change in the size or orientation of an object.

* is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—the called the source text—and the production of a new ...

* (RNA translation) process by which the sequence of nucleotides in a messenger RNA molecule directs the incorporation of amino acids into a protein.

* recreates the reading/writing/conversion modules for the different file formats.

* The act of accepting documents in other than standard format and translating them to the EDI standard.

* The process in which the genetic code carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids. Compare transcription.

* The process by which RNA makes proteins.

* Process by which the information on a messenger RNA molecule is used to direct the synthesis of a protein.

* synthesis of protein using mRNA code

* the process during which the information in mRNA molecules is used to construct proteins. Compare transcription.

* (by ribosomes—an ensemble of RNA and proteins)

* The reproduction of a book, movie or other work into another language.

* A mapping from an event description to one or more actions. When a widget receives an event, Xt searches the widget's translation table for a matching event description. If it finds such a description, it invokes the associated action or actions.

* The process by which information in the RNA genetic code (qv) is used to direct protein synthesis

* (provided at location) —

* Payments for all work shall be made within 28 days of invoice date unless specifically agreed in writing by the Company, although in some circumstances payment or part payment may be requested prior to the commencement of the work. ...

* The second major step in gene expression, in which the instructions encoded in RNA are carried out by making a protein or starting or stopping ...
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